KU Center for Research on Learning

KU Center for Research on Learning

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The Text Pattern Intervention

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Lessons 5 and 6: Locating Connectives and Identifiers in Content-Area Texts
The last two lessons show students how to join phrases using temporal and causal connectives (i.e., conjunctions and transitions) and track previously introduced ideas or concepts. First, students learn how to join clauses together with connectives. Whereas conjunctions join two clauses together within a sentence (in this intervention), transitions introduce new information that relates to previously stated ideas. This intervention assigned specific symbols (e.g., clock or lightning bolt) to each type of connective and to positive (+) and negative (−) relations so that students associated icons with the concepts that they represented (see the Connectives Chart below). In addition, the concepts of presenting (i.e., introducing) and presuming (i.e., tracking) are addressed. Authors introduce main subjects to the reader using introducing identifiers such as a, an, and some, but they use different words—like this, she, and they—to succinctly refer back to concepts.



What Did We Learn?
Educators need to explicitly teach students with language difficulties how to understand passive voice, noun phrases, and connectives. As a Tier II program (in a response to intervention system), the intervention attempts to provide a bridge between intensive strategy instruction and authentic practice comprehending content-area text. The validation study took place in three separate high schools in three different Midwestern states. Data were collected from three experimental classrooms and three comparison classrooms for a total of 49 students (see below).

The Text Pattern intervention was taught in the experimental classes whereas the teachers delivered instruction as planned in the comparison classes. Pretest and posttest results indicated that the students who learned the intervention outperformed the students who received instruction as usual when answering questions about a social studies passage.



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PERSONNEL
Frances Ihle, doctoral fellow
Don Deshler, KUCRL director

NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS
During the validation study, the author of this intervention provided professional development and instructional coaching on a weekly basis to three teachers as they taught the Text Pattern Intervention, which really paid off.

• After learning the Text Pattern Intervention, students earned significantly higher scores (+28.71) than their peers (+0.97) when answering questions about a 400-word social studies passage.

• Results of a satisfaction survey, which used a 7-point Likert scale, indicated that both the teachers (6.22) and the students (5.31) viewed the intervention as helpful.

RESEARCH DESIGN
1) Preliminary Phase: Define the setting demands and determine how to address the problem.

2) Prototype Phase: Develop the intervention and seek practitioner input.

3) Pilot Phase: Field test and refine the intervention.


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