KU Center for Research on Learning

KU Center for Research on Learning

High school student sitting at a desk, reading 'Lord of the Flies'.

Investigating Sound Effects

Interpreting the Findings
This project resulted in several notable findings. First, on reading and spelling variables, Sound Effects performed comparably to a widely used and research-based decoding program (Corrective Reading). Additionally, Sound Effects instruction appears to have more social acceptability when compared to Corrective Reading. Students in Sound Effects wanted to remain in this reading intervention when given a choice between it and Corrective Reading or Voyager Reading. Likewise, the results from the Reading Self-Concept Scale were unprecedented. Additional research will need to assess the extent to which reading programs may actually prove detrimental to attitudes toward reading.

The present research provides additional support to research that suggests that adolescents with significant reading difficulties require significant and intensive basic reading instruction. Sound Effects appears to have wide social acceptability and seems to demonstrate gains similar to existing programs.

Masterson, J.J., & Apel, K. (2010). The spelling sensitivity score: Noting developmental changes in spelling knowledge. Assessment for Effective Intervention 36(1), 35.

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Examine the effects of Sound Effects on adolescent reading and study skills.

Carrie Mark, KUCRL doctoral fellow
Donald D. Deshler, KUCRL director


Study 1
Single-Case Design

Study 2
Group Design—Random Assignment

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